صفحه ی اصلی سوالاتدسته بندی: اطلاعات عمومیHeavy Fraction Separation From Used Lube Oil Using Thin
محمد مهدی 6 ماه قبل

 
 
 
 
 
 
Heavy Fraction Separation From Used Lube Oil Using Thin
Film Evaporator
A J Rifliansah, R H M Utomo, J P Sutikno and R Handogo*.
Process Design and Control Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut
Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya (ITS), 60111, Indonesia
*email: renanto@chem-eng.its.ac.id
Abstract. Used lube oil is a dangerous waste that must be treated before disposed on the
environment. Used lube oil treatment process consists of several stages, one of them is the
separation of heavy fraction. Some equipment system can be used to complete this process, and
thin film evaporator (TFE) is chosen for this research. The goal of this research is to
understand the effect of temperature and rotor rotation on the heat transfer that happens in the
distillation process using thin film evaporator. Simulation using Aspen Plus is used and is
validated by manual calculation using Matlab. Temperature is varied between 250 330 oC
and rotor rotation are varied between 0 60 rotations per minute (RPM) in a vacuum pressure
of 2.53 kPa. From this research, the relation between operating temperature and rotor rotation
in thin film evaporator to the vapor fraction produced is directly proportional. The optimum
operating condition in this research was found at a temperature of 310 oC with the agitator
rotational speed of 30 RPM.
1. Introduction
Used lube oil is a valuable resource. However, in its use, used lube oil is contaminated with various
components of impurities. In addition, the organic constituents in lube oils also undergo changes
during its use and produce contaminants. Thus, the used lube oil can no longer be used for several
reasons. Because of the basic characteristics of used lube oil and these contaminants, the used lube oil
cannot be discharged directly into the environment. Therefore, it needs further treatment for this used
lube oil. There are several solutions to deal with used lube oil. The first way is to use used lube oil as a
fuel. For more economically and environmentally feasible to handle the used lube oil, reprocess the
used oil back into the fresh lube oil which can be used for the original requirement. There are several
methods for treating used lube oil, one of them is intended to separate the heavy fraction of lube oils
free of the residue using Falling Film Distillation Column [1]. The second method is using agitated
thin film evaporator as the processing equipment [2]. In this separation process, the thin film
evaporator as one normally will distribute the feed distilled at the wall of the evaporator. The
thin layer thus formed and be separated, light fraction will go to the distillate, while the heavy fraction
will be heading to the residue. The heating can be done in two ways, namely by using a heating coil in
the evaporator or by using heat in the beginning before it goes into the evaporator. Thin film
evaporator offers the dual advantage of short residence time and the formation of a thin film which
optimizes the separation process. Therefore, it is necessary to design the thin film evaporator using
simulation software Aspen Plus. The goal to determine the effect of operating temperature and rotor
rotation thin film evaporator. After that, simulation results are validated using MATLAB and the
optimum operating conditions are determined for this separation process according to specifications
feed used in this study.
 

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
2

 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Theory
2.1. Used Lube Oil
Used lube oil is usually composed of a mixture of various lubricating oils that have been used in motor
vehicles and industry. [3]. Lubricating oils lose their effectiveness because of specific types of
contaminants. These contaminants are divided into two categories, the first is a foreign contaminant
and the second is the product of damaged lube oil. Foreign contaminants come from the air and metal
particles from the engine. Contaminants which come from the air are sand, dirt, and humidity. The air
itself can be considered as a contaminant because it may cause oil or lube oil becomes frothy.
Contaminants coming from the engine are metal particles due to the use of machines, carbon particles
originating from incomplete combustion, metal oxides originating from corrosion on metal, water
from leaking cooling system, the water of the products of combustion, fuels or additives or by-
products which may enter the engine crankcase. [3]. Used lube oil has a chemical formula of carbon
chain between C21-C40. Volatile gases contained in the used lube oil are H2, CO, and CO2. The
composition of the used lube oil used in this study is described in Table 1 below:
 
 

Component

Mass Flowrate (kg/h)

Mass Percentage (%)

Light End

0.0001

0.00

Gas Oil

0.6758

7.30

Lube Oil

5.7667

78.37

Residue

1.3273

14.33

Total

9.2623

100.00

 
2.2. Thin Film Evaporator
Thin film evaporator is one type of evaporator that applies a formation of the thin layer in the heat
exchange process. Despite this consideration, thin film evaporator is also considered as mass transport
equipment because the molecules of the liquid phase may be transferred to the gas phase during the
evaporation and vice versa. Stripping is done by the upward gases and absorption is done by the
downward liquid. This equipment has been applied in the production of chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
and food since 1950. Illustration of vertical thin-film evaporator is given in Figure 1:
 
Figure 1: Vertical Thin-Film Evaporator [5]

Table 1: Composition of used lube oil [4]
 

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
3

 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Methods
Thin film evaporators are modeled on Aspen Plus using a combination of horizontal heat exchangers
and vertical flash drum [6] according to Figure 2. This model is an approximation since there is no
thin film evaporator as a single unit in Aspen Plus. Therefore, it needs validation using manual
calculation. In this process, feed enters into the heat exchanger with temperatures of 200 °C and will
be heated to 250-330 °C with increments of 20 °C. Then the value of the heat coefficient is entered
which corresponds to variable rotor rotation 6-60 RPM at an operating pressure of 2.53 kPa. The
liquid phase and vapor phase are then separated using a flash separator to obtain a top product and
bottom product from the thin film evaporator. The value of the heat transfer coefficient (hsc) will
change as the value of rotation of the rotor on the thin film evaporator changes. To get the hsc value,
calculations are necessary and involve a wide range of variables with the following equation:
 
Figure 2: Thin-Film Evaporator Model

%=

=1
×100

(1)

 =

(2)

=.

(3)

.=2


(4)

=.1+1.1

(5)

=.1+1.1

(6)

=.1
+1.1

(7)

=1


(8)

 

 

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
4

 
 
 
 
 
 

=

(9)

=..sin

(10)

=tan1

(11)

=

(12)

=

(13)

=(
4)(22)

(14)

=

(15)

= 
2

(16)

=( )

(17)

=.

(18)

= 

(19)

=0,0230,80,4

(20)

=

(21)

=

(22)

=
4
2
2

(23)

=

(24)

=
4
2
2

(25)

 

 
 
 

 
 

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
5

 
 
 
 
 
 
With all of the equations above, the overall heat transfer coefficient can be obtained with varying the
rotation of the rotor thin film evaporator (N). Heat transfer coefficient values obtained from manual
calculations will be used into the simulation Aspen Plus. This overall heat transfer is also used to
calculate how much product is separated using thermodynamic relation to validate the simulation
results so that the error can be known. In this case the required data according to Tables 2 and 3
Table 2: Thin Film Evaporators Specification

Specification

Symbol

unit

Value

Blade Diameter

Dt

m

0.0446

Outer diameter of the
annulus

Ds

m

0.0720

Inner diameter of the
annulus

Dr

m

0.0625

Height

T

m

0.2200

Number of Blade

B

 

8

Table 3: Feed Composition
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. The relation between Rotor and Rotation with Heat Transfer Coefficient (hsc)
The speed of rotation of the rotor can be modeled by changing the heat transfer coefficient (U) that is
calculated for corresponding speed. Therefore, the manual calculation is necessary to determine the
heat transfer coefficient for each variable of the rotation speed of the rotor. Results are obtained on the
graph in Figure 3. Heat transfer coefficient value obtained from the calculation will be used in
modeling the thin film evaporator at Aspen Plus software for each variable rotation speed of the rotor

Feed composition

Symbol

Unit

Value

Inlet mass flow

mz

Kg/s

0.0025

Feed Density

ρa

Kg/m3

975

Light component
fraction

X.L

 

0.8572

Thermal light
conductivity

k.L

W/m.K

0.1210

Heavy thermal
conductivity

k.H

W/m.K

0.0870

Light density

ρ.L

Kg /m3

823

heavy density

ρ.H

 

975

Light heat capacity

Cp.L

 

2,409

Heavy heat capacity

Cp.H

 

2,734

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
6

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 3: Comparison graph between heat transfer coefficient and the rotational speed of the rotor
4.2. Effect of Various Rotor Rotation Vapour Fraction and Vapour Mass Flowrate
Variations of rotor rotation used in this simulation were from 0 up to 60 RPM. Variations of this rotor
rotation were simulated to each variable operating temperature of the thin film evaporator at a
temperature of 250 °C, 270 °C, 290 °C, 310 °C and 330 °C. Parameters that would be observed are the
amount of vapor fraction and composition of the vapor fraction that is carried to the top product. In
this case, the operating pressure is in a vacuum of 2.53 kPa. The results of the simulation model of thin
film evaporator for various rotor rotations can be seen in Figures 4 and 5. Vapor fraction and mass
flow of vapor produced are proportional in general with the speed of rotation. This is true because the
equation above, the overall heat transfer coefficient is proportional with rotation speed. The amount of
vapor for rotor rotation increases significantly until about 6 RPM then steadily rises until 30 RPM.
4.3. Effect of Various Operating Temperature on Product Composition
Variations in temperature used in this simulation are in the range of 250 oC to 330 oC with increments
of 20 oC. Rotation speed also varied in each of these variables. The percentage of lube oil and residue
in distillate for each variable and mass flow of lube and residue are plotted in Figures 6, 7, 8, and 9.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Figure 4: Graph of Vapor Fraction and
Mass Flowrate Againts Rotor Rotation at
310oC

Figure 5: Graphs of Vapor Fraction Againts
Rotor Rotations at Various Temperature

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
It can be seen in Figure 6, the percentage composition of lube oil in 60 RPM is higher than in 6 RPM
when the operating temperature between 250 °C – 310 ° C. Above 310 °C, the percentage composition
of lube oil in 60 RPM is lower than in 6 RPM. So the highest percentage of lube oil composition is
found at a temperature of 310 °C. Below 310 °C, every increase in the operating temperature of the
thin film evaporator cause lube oil mass flow to increase significantly according to the Figure 8 and
the flow rate of residue also increases but not significant according to the Figure 9, so that the
percentage of lube oil increases. So, it can be concluded that the optimum operating conditions of this
thin film evaporator at a temperature of 310 °C with the rotation of the rotor 30 RPM.
 
 
 
 
 

Figure 6: Graphs of Percentage Lube Oil
Composition Againts Operating Temperature
at Various Rotor Rotation

Figure 7: Graph of Percentage Residue
Composition Againts Operating Temperature At
Various Rotor Rotation
 

Figure 8: Graph of Lube Oil Mass Flowrate
Againts Operating Temperature At Various
Rotor Rotation
 

Figure 9: Graph of Residue Mass Flowrate
Againts Operating Temperature At Various
RotorRotation

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
8

 
 
 
 
 
 
4.4. Validation Using Manual Calculation
Because of the lack of features of Aspen Plus, the tool is modeled with a combination of the heat
exchanger and a flash drum. So it is necessary to validate the simulation results using manual
calculation. Results of the validation are presented in Table 4. Based on the results of the calculation
using MATLAB and the results of the simulation using Aspen Plus, the error is generated. The error
does not exceed 5%, therefore the modeling in Aspen Plus can represent a process in Thin Film
Evaporator. Percent error obtained in optimum conditions, a temperature of 310 °C and 30 RPM rotor
rotation is at 2.45 %.
 
4.5. Production Composition of Optimum Condition
The optimum operating conditions are obtained at a temperature of 310 °C with an optimum rotor
rotation is at 30 RPM. In such operating conditions, the product obtained has the following
composition in Table 5.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Conclusion
Based on the results of the research that has been done, it can be concluded that the relation between
operating temperature and rotor rotation thin film evaporator to the vapor fraction produced is directly
proportional. The higher the operating temperature and rotor rotation of Thin Film Evaporator, the
higher the vapor fraction generated. But for rotor rotation above 30 RPM, the increase is almost
negligible. The optimum operating conditions for this process is at the rotation speed of 30 RPM and
310 °C operating temperature, which produces a vapor fraction of 0.8253 with the percentage of lube
oil fractions of 85.40 % to the product and the product mass of 6.75 kg/h.

RPM

Top Product Fraction

Error
Percentage
(%)

MATLAB

Aspen Plus

6

0.7829

0.7486

4.38

10

0.8146

0.7854

3.59

20

0.8405

0.8176

2.73

30

0.8460

0.8253

2.45

40

0.8484

0.8268

2.55

54

0.8436

0.8265

2.55

60

0.8492

0.8265

2.67

Average error

2.98

Component

Mass flowrate
(kg / h)

Mass Percentage
(%)

Light End

0.0001

0.00

Gas Oil

0.6751

10.00

Lube Oil

5.7667

85.40

Residue

0.3110

4.61

Total

6.7529

100.00

Table 4: Comparison of Simulation Results Thin Film
Evaporator Using Aspen Plus and Matlab Operating
temperature 310 °C
 

Table 5: Product Composition At
Optimum Condition
 

 

 

1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 543 (2019) 012050
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/543/1/012050
9

 
 
 
 
 
 
Acknowledgment
The authors acknowledged the funding from Direktorat Riset dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat Dikti
to support this work.
 
References
[1] Querino M V, Marangoni C and Machado R 2018 Chem. Eng. Trans. 69 679-84
[2] Rossi F, Corbetta M, Geraci D, Pirola C and Manenti F 2015 Chem. Eng. Trans. 43 1429-34
[3] Speight J and Exall D 2014 Handbook of Refining Used Lube Oils, CRC Press
[4] Carlo G L 2013 Presentation of Study Tecnologie Progetti Srl
[5] Dziak J 2011 Advanced Topics in Mass Transfer Prof. Mohamed El-Amin (Ed.), INTECH.
[6] Pawar B S, Patil R and Mujumdar U S 2011 Drying Technol. 29 719-28
 

 

 

 

 

Refining Used Lubricating Oils

Book

  • Apr 2014
  • J.G. Speight
  • Douglas I. Exall

 

View
 

Mathematical Modeling of Agitated Thin-Film Dryer

Article

  • May 2011
  • DRY TECHNOL
  •  
  • Sanjay Pawar
  • Raosaheb Patil
  •  
  • A. S. Mujumdar
  •  
  • Bhaskar Thorat

 

View
 

 

  • Jan 2018
  • 679-684
  • M V Querino
  • Marangoni C Machado

Querino M V, Marangoni C and Machado R 2018 Chem. Eng. Trans. 69 679-84

 

  • Jan 2015
  • 1429-1434
  • F Rossi
  • M Corbetta
  • D Geraci
  • C Pirola
  • F Manenti

Rossi F, Corbetta M, Geraci D, Pirola C and Manenti F 2015 Chem. Eng. Trans. 43 1429-34

Handbook of Refining Used Lube Oils

  • Jan 2014
  • J Speight
  • D Exall

Speight J and Exall D 2014 Handbook of Refining Used Lube Oils, CRC Press

Presentation of Study Tecnologie Progetti Srl

  • Jan 2013
  • G Carlo

Carlo G L 2013 Presentation of Study Tecnologie Progetti Srl

 

  • Jan 2011
  • 719-728
  • B S Pawar
  • Patil R Mujumdar

Pawar B S, Patil R and Mujumdar U S 2011 Drying Technol. 29 719-28

 

 

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